plasma spraying

What is Laser Cladding?

Laser cladding is a deposit overlay technology which uses a high power industrial laser to melt / weld material onto a substrate creating a overlay with true metallurgical bonding.
A broad range of cladding materials and substrate combinations are possible, adding local value to base material such as:


  • Chemical and corrosion protection
  • Wear and tear protection
  • Repair or refurbishment of worn, damaged or mis-machined components


Laser Cladding Advantages:

  • Metallurgical bond vs. mechanical bond of thermal sprayed layers
  • Low dilution with the substrate material, typical about 4 – 7%  (approx. 1/3 of PTA process)
  • Highly controllable/repeatable and efficient process
  • Smooth clad with very low porosity resulting in less post-machining in comparison with other welding overlay techniques
  • Small heat effected zone, less part distortion (approx. 50% of PTA process)
  • High quench rates => finer grain structure => higher corrosion potentials
  • Deposit efficiency (DE) close to 100% Vs. 20 up to 70% with thermal spray
  • Alternative Technologies: PTA, HVOF, Thermal Spray, Sub-merged Arc


Laser Cladding – Variables

Types of Base Material:
Carbon-manganese, alloy, stainless and tool steel, copper


Cladding Material Alloys:
Cobalt, iron, nickel alloys, martensitic stainless steel and tungsten carbide, bronze


Type of Cladding process:
Gas fed powder cladding, Gravity powder cladding, Hot wire cladding


Size of Cladding Material:
Powder, typical PTA cut -70 to +250 mesh (44 to 210 micron).
Hot wire typical welding diameter of 1,2-1,6 mm (solid or cored)


Powder Feed Rate: 
2.7 – 12 kg/h

Laser Power:  
1 to 10 kW typical

Size of Beam Shape (power density):  
1 x 12 mm or 6 x 24 mm (line source laser)

Process Speed:  
0.35 – 2 m/min 

Clad Thickness (single pass):  
0.30 – 2.0 mm

Delivery and Cover Gas:  
Argon, helium or argon/helium mix

Substrate Temperature:  
Substrate preheat is sometimes required to prevent


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